• Making the Case for Running Shoes

  • 穿跑鞋跑步的理由

  • Correction Appended
  • 附录有更正信息
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  • Jordan Siemens/Getty ImagesCan a sneaker improve your performance?
  • Jordan Siemens/Getty图片拍摄:运动鞋能改善您的表现吗?
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  • For the past few years, proponents of barefoot running have argued that modern athletic shoes compromise natural running form. But now a first-of-its-kind study suggests that, in the right circumstances, running shoes make running physiologically easier than going barefoot.
  • 在过去几年中,支持赤脚跑步的人们一直在争论现代运动鞋破坏了自然跑步方式的问题。但是,最新一项史无前例的研究表明,在正确的环境下,穿着跑鞋跑步比赤脚跑步对人的身体更有益。
  • The study, conducted by researchers at the University of Colorado in Boulder, began by recruiting 12 well-trained male runners with extensive barefoot running experience. “It was important to find people who are used to running barefoot,” says Rodger Kram, a professor of integrative physiology, who oversaw the study, which was published online in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
  • 科罗拉多州立大学的研究者们住到了这一项研究。他们招募了12个训练有素的男性赛跑者,这些参与者同时也有大量的赤脚跑步的经验。“找一些习惯于赤脚跑步的人参与研究是很重要的,”综合生理学教授罗杰·克拉姆说。他监督了这项研究,并在Sports & Exercise的Medicine & Science 网络杂志上刊登了这个观点。
  • “A novice barefoot runner moves very differently than someone who’s used to running barefoot,” Dr. Kram says. “We wanted to look at runners who knew what they were doing, whether they were wearing shoes or not.”
  • “赤脚跑步的新手和那些习惯于赤脚跑步的人有很大的不同。”克拉姆博士说。“我们希望研究那些无论穿不穿跑鞋都知道自己在做什么的跑步者。”
  • Specifically, he and his colleagues hoped to determine whether wearing shoes was metabolically more costly than going unshod. In other words, does wearing shoes require more energy than going barefoot?
  • 他和他的同事们尤其希望能确定穿鞋子跑步是否比赤脚跑步更能促进新城代谢。换句话说,穿鞋子跑步是否会比赤脚跑步消耗更多的能量。
  • A few previous studies have suggested that in terms of physiological effort, it’s easier to go barefoot. After all, shoes have mass; they add weight to your feet, and pushing weight through space, as you do with every step while running, demands energy.
  • 一些早前的研究已经发现就生理上的努力而言,赤脚跑步更轻松一些。毕竟,鞋子的存在会增加双脚的负重;而你每跑一步都需要更多的能量来推动这些附加的重量。
  • These earlier studies generally concluded that every additional 100 grams (or about 3.5 ounces) added to your feet should increase the energy cost of running by about 1 percent. Over many miles, that 1 percent becomes magnified if you wear heavy running shoes, which can easily weigh 300 to 400 grams or more.
  • 这些早期的研究可以总体概括为:双脚上每增加100克(大约3.5盎司)的负重,跑步时人体的能量消耗就会增加一个百分点。当你穿跑鞋跑很远的时候,这一个百分点的能量消耗就会被放大到相当于带着300到400克或更多的负重。
  • But for the new study, Dr. Kram and his colleagues wanted to use a relatively lightweight, cushioned shoe. They chose the Nike Mayfly, a model that, as the name intimates, is a flyweight, barely reaching 150 grams.
  • 但是,在这项克拉姆和他的同事的最新研究中,他们想用一个相对轻的负重,就是缓冲跑步鞋。他们最终选定了耐克的Mayfly型跑鞋,鞋如其名,这是一款不到150克的轻跑鞋。
  • The runners were asked to run multiple times on treadmills while either wearing the shoes or not. The runners were never completely barefoot; when unshod, they wore thin yoga socks to protect them from developing blisters and for purposes of basic hygiene on the shared treadmills.
  • 这些参与研究的跑步者被要求在跑步机上穿鞋或不穿鞋跑很多次。所谓的赤脚,并不是说他们真正地光着脚,而是穿着很薄的瑜伽袜,用以保护他们的双脚以免起水泡,同时也为了保持公用跑步机的洁净。
  • Next, the researchers taped 150 grams’ worth of thin lead strips to the top of runners’ stockinged feet. By adding an equal amount of weight to the bare foot, they could learn whether barefoot running really was physiologically more efficient than wearing shoes.
  • 接下来,研究者们在这些跑步者穿了袜子的双脚上贴上150克的薄铅条。每个跑步者都加上同样的负重,一边研究赤脚跑步是否真地比穿鞋跑步在生理上更有效率。
  • It wasn’t. When barefoot runners and shod runners carried the same weight on their feet, barefoot running used almost 4 percent more energy during every step than running in shoes.
  • 事实并非如此。当赤脚跑步者和穿鞋跑步这在双脚上携带同样的负重时,前者要比后者每跑一步都要多消耗大约百分之四的能量。
  • To the surprise of the researchers, barefoot running, often touted by fans as more natural than wearing shoes, was actually less efficient.
  • 让研究者们感到吃惊的是,尽管赤脚跑步的吹捧者们总是吹嘘这样比穿鞋跑步更自然,事实上赤脚跑步效率更低。
  • “What we found was that there seem to be adaptations that occur during the running stride that can make wearing shoes metabolically less costly,” says Jason R. Franz, a doctoral candidate at the University of Colorado who led the study. Shoes, he says, “provide some degree of cushioning.” If you eschew shoes, “something else has to provide the cushioning.”
  • “我们发现在人们大步奔跑的时候似乎会有适应性出现,这会减少穿鞋跑步所需的代谢。”科罗拉多大学的博士候选人Jason R. Franz说。他也是这项研究的领导人之一。他认为,“鞋子在某种程度上给跑步者提供了缓冲。”如果您不穿鞋子跑步,“这种缓冲作用就要由别的事物来完成。”
  • That something, he and his colleagues believe, is your legs. If you are barefoot, the job of absorbing some of the forces generated by the collision of foot and ground shifts to your leg muscles, a process that Dr. Kram calls the “cushioning effect.” As a result, the leg muscles contract and work more and require additional energy. The metabolic cost of the activity rises.
  • 他和他的同事们认为,这里所说的“别的事物”就是跑步者的双腿。如果跑步者光着脚,那么由于双脚和地面的撞击所产生的力量就必须由跑步者的双腿肌肉来吸收,克拉姆博士把这个过程称为“缓冲效应”。由此而来的结果就是,双腿肌肉必须接受额外的工作并消耗额外的能量。跑步所需的代谢能量就增加了。
  • Of course, most barefoot runners don’t head out to jog wearing leaded Band-Aids, as they did in this study. But notably, even when unweighted barefoot running was compared foot-to-foot with running in the Mayflies, the shoes won out. For 8 of the 12 runners, wearing shoes remained slightly more efficient than being barefoot, even though the shoes added more weight.
  • 当然,大部分赤脚跑步者并不会像这项研究的参与者一样戴着铅条出门跑步。但是很明显,即使是拿不负重的赤脚跑步者和穿着耐克Mayflies跑鞋的跑步者作比较,穿鞋子的跑步者依然胜出。尽管鞋子本身增加了负重,这十二个跑步者中有八个穿鞋跑步的时候比赤脚跑步的时候要高效一些。
  • It’s important to note that the study looked only at the metabolic efficiency of wearing shoes, compared with going barefoot. The scientists didn’t evaluate the common claim that barefoot running lowers injury risk.
  • 这项研究只针对于穿鞋跑步和赤脚跑步时代谢的效率做对比,明白这一点很重要。科学家们并没有对赤脚跑步降低外伤风险的断言作出评估。
  • In the end, the difference in metabolic cost between going barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes is probably of greatest interest to competitive runners. Serious racers might want to mull over the trade-off between having less mass on their feet when barefoot versus having greater potential strain on their leg muscles.
  • 最后,赤脚跑步或穿轻质跑鞋跑步所消耗的代谢区别可能就激发了人们对成为有竞争力的赛跑者的极大兴趣。真正的赛跑者也许想要认真琢磨一下,以便权衡到底是应该赤脚时减少双脚的负重还是应该发挥双腿肌肉的潜在应变能力。
  • For the rest of us, the lesson might be that even if you’re not interested in going barefoot, you might want to invest in a slimmed-down trainer. “There is a metabolic cost to wearing really heavy running shoes,” Dr. Franz says. Lightweight models, though, that provide cushioning to spare leg muscles without mass to slow movement may be the physiologically smartest alternative, he says, to being bare.
  • 对于我们其余的人来说,需要知晓的是即使您不喜欢赤脚跑步,您也许会想投资一个瘦身教练。“穿着真正沉重的跑鞋也需要额外地消耗代谢。”弗朗兹博士说。尽管轻型跑步鞋给腿部肌肉提供了缓冲,也不会增加负重而造成行动缓慢,但是光脚跑步在生理学上讲也许也是一个不错的选择。
  • Correction: March 21, 2012
  • 更正: 2012年3月21日
  • An earlier version of this post misstated the weight of running shoes, which may easily weigh 300 to 400 grams, not ounces.
  • 这篇文章的早期版本错误地描述了跑鞋的重量,正确的应该是300到400克,而不是300到400盎司。
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