• Mad Cow Disease: What You Need To Know Now

  • 疯牛病:现在您需要知道什么

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  • Mad cow disease has been detected in a cow in California, the first time since 2006 that the deadly disease has surfaced in the U.S.
  • 疯牛病在加利福尼亚的一只牛身上被检查出来,自从2006年这种致命性的疾病第一次在美国被发现。
  • What does that mean for those of us who might want to eat a burger, or drink a glass of milk? The food supply is safe, the U.S. Department of Agriculture said Tuesday. Here's a quick rundown of what we know now. For more on mad cow, listen to Jim Culler, director of the UC Davis Food Safety Lab, on today'sAll Things Considered.
  • 这对我们意味着什么,如果我们可能想要吃一个汉堡包或者喝一杯牛奶?美国农业部周二说,食物供应是安全。让我们看看我们现在都知道什么。有关疯牛病,听吉姆·卡勒,加州大学戴维斯分校的食品安全实验室主任,在今天的所有考虑的事情说的。
  • How can the USDA say this doesn't threaten safety of the food supply?
  • 美国农业部怎么会说食物供应安全不被威胁?
  • There are two reasons.
  • 这里有两个理由。
  • The first is that the cow in question wasn't destined for the food supply. Its carcass had been sent to a rendering plant in California. Those carcasses are typically used for pet food or industrial uses.
  • 第一个是那个有问题的牛并不是为了食物供应而存的。它的尸体已经被送往加州的渲染厂。那些尸体一般都用于宠物食物或者工业使用。
  • The second is that this cow had a rare form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, mad cow's official name, that is caused by a spontaneous mutation. That's different than getting the disease from eating feed made out of bone and tissue from infected cattle, which caused the outbreaks in England in the 1980s and 1990s.
  • 第二个是这头牛有一种罕见的牛海绵状脑病,疯牛的官方名字,是由自发突变引起的。这和之前1980年代和1990年代在英国爆发的,由食用由感染病的黄牛的骨头和组织制成的饲料而感染这个病是不同的。
  • How was this case of mad cow found?
  • 这一例疯牛病是如何被发现的?
  • The cow was selected for random testing at Baker Commodities in Hanford., Calif., an official there told the Associated Press.
  • 这头牛被选中在加利福尼亚州汉福德的贝克商品做一个随机检查。一个那里的官方人员告诉美联社。
  • It's part of a testing program mandated by the USDA after mad cow disease was first discovered in the United States in 2003.
  • 这个是由美国农业部所授权的一项检测项目的一部分,在疯牛病在2003年第一次在美国被发现后。
  • The USDA randomly tests about 40,000 cattle per year. That's just a tiny percentage of the 34 million cattle slaughtered in the U.S. in 2011. But the testing is supposed to focus on older cattle or sick cattle most likely to be infected.
  • 美国农业部随机的检测大概四万头黄牛每年。这仅仅是一个非常少的百分率,相对于2011年美国屠杀的三千四百万头牛来说。但是这项检测应该是集中于老牛或者病牛,最容易患病的。
  • This case brings the mad cow count in the United States up to four. That includes the first case, in Washington state in 2003; one cow in Texas in 2005; and one in Alabama in 2006.
  • 这例将疯牛病例在美国升至为4例。这包括在2003年华盛顿州的第一例,在2005年德州的第二例,在2006年阿拉巴马州的第三例。
  •  What causes mad cow disease?
  • 什么引起了疯牛病?
  • It's caused by prions, weird mutant proteins that are found in brain and spinal tissue. They're responsible for other diseases in animals, and the human version of mad cow, called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. All these diseases slowly destroy brain tissue, and are fatal. There's no treatment.
  • 它是由朊病毒引起的,在脑中或者脊髓组织中,奇怪的变异蛋白被发现。朊病毒也会引起其他动物的其他病变,人类样式的疯牛病,叫做克雅氏病。所有的这些疾病会缓慢的摧毁脑组织,并且是致命的,而且没有任何治疗方法。
  • Prions were first discovered by neurologist Stanley Prusiner in the 1980s. They remain mysterious, and there's no consensus on what causes them to form.
  • 朊病毒第一次发现是在1980年代,由神经学家斯坦利普鲁西纳发现。它们仍旧十分神秘,并且对于它们是如何形成的,还没有定论。
  • How do people get infected?
  • 人类如何感染?
  • People can get Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from spontaneous mutations of proteins in the nervous system. Or they can get it from eating meat from an infected cow. That's what happened in the United Kingdom. More than 150 people died of the disease there in the 1980s and 1990s. Researchers eventually figured out that they got sick from eating the meat of infected cattle.
  • 人们会由在神经系统中自发性突变的蛋白而得克雅氏病。或者人们会因为吃了有病的牛而得病。这就是发生在英国的事。多于150个人在1980年代和1990年代死于这个疾病。研究人员终于发现他们是因为吃了感染的牛而生病。
  • Why is that less of a threat now?
  • 为什么现在它的威胁性较小?
  • The U.S. and other countries have stopped using high-risk cattle parts in animal feed, including pet food. That includes parts from older animals, and brain and spinal tissue. Feed was considered a key cause of the British mad cow epidemic.
  • 美国和其他国家已经停止使用高风险的牛肉部分来制成动物饲料,包括宠物食品。这些高风险的部分包括年老的动物,和脑,脊髓组织。饲料被认为是引起英国疯牛病疫情的关键原因。
  • Feed bans are thought to be responsible for reducing the number of cases of mad cow worldwide from 37,311 in 1992 to 29 in 2011.
  • 饲料禁令被认为是全球疯牛病案例减少的重要因素,从1992年的37311例降至2011年的29例。
  • Is it possible to get mad cow disease from milk?
  • 有没有可能从牛奶那里感染疯牛病?
  • The milk supply is safe, federal officials say. Prion diseases affect the nervous system, and there's no evidence they've ever been transmitted by drinking milk.
  • 牛奶的供应是安全的,联邦官员说。朊病毒引起的疾病会影响神经系统,但没有证据证明它们可以由喝牛奶而传播。
  • How worried should I be?
  • 我需要有多少分的焦急?
  • Though mad cow disease and C-J disease sound like material from a horror movie, both diseases are very rare. The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that mad cow disease affects 0.167 cows per million in the United States.
  • 虽然疯牛病和克雅氏病听起来像从恐怖电影里出来的,但是两者皆非常罕见。联邦疾病控制和预防中心估计,疯牛病在美国影响每百万中的0.167头奶牛。
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