• Death penalty may not impact murder rate

  • 死刑可能不会影响谋杀率

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  • “Our analysis of homicides and serious crimes in Trinidad and Tobago seriously undermines the contention that capital punishment offers a solution to Trinidad and Tobago’s soaring homicide rate,” write the study’s co-authors, David Greenberg, professor of sociology at New York University and Biko Agozino, professor of sociology at Virginia Tech.
  • “我们对于在特立尼达和多巴哥的凶杀和连环杀人案的研究消弱了关于极刑可以成为特立尼达和多巴哥高高在上的谋杀率解决方法的争论,”报告的合著者,纽约大学社会学的教授大卫·格林伯格和弗吉尼亚理工大学社会学教授比科艾哦泽农
  • “Over a span of 50 years, during which these sanctions were being deployed in degrees that varied substantially, neither imprisonment nor death sentences nor executions had any significant relationship to homicides.”
  • “在50年的范围里,这些制裁都被一定程度的使用过,但是无论是囚禁或者死刑或者肉刑都没有和谋杀有任何重要的联系。”
  • A study on the impact of capital punishment in the Caribbean republic is of particular interest because of the high level of death-penalty sentencing there. The sociologists’ findings are published in the British Journal of Criminology.
  • 一项有关于在加勒比共和国极刑的影响尤其有趣,因为那里死刑的判决率是如此的高。社会学家的研究结果发表在英国犯罪学杂志上。
  • “It has been hard to measure capital punishment as a deterrent to murder in the U.S. because it is administered infrequently,” explains Greenberg. “By contrast, in Trinidad and Tobago, the chances of actually being executed have historically been much higher.”
  • “很难去衡量极刑是否能在美国成为谋杀的抑制力。因为太少管理,”格林伯格解释说。“相反的,在特里尼达和多巴哥,历来实际真正执行的机会要高得多。”
  • In the United States, the death penalty was reinstated by states more than 30 years ago—following a 1976 landmark Supreme Court ruling—while capital punishment has not existed in Canada or in western Europe for several decades.
  • 在美国,死刑在30年前曾经重新恢复过——继1976年具有里程碑意义的最高法院的裁决——而极刑在加拿大或者在西欧已经好几十年没有出现过了。
  • By contrast, Trinidad and Tobago had high rates of death-penalty sentencing and executions prior to a 1993 court ruling, which barred the death penalty for inmates on death row longer than five years, thereby reducing the number of executions and death-penalty sentences. Though the courts continue to impose death sentences, none has been carried out in more than a decade.
  • 相反的,特里尼达和多巴哥在1993年的法院判决之前,有很高的死亡判决和执行率,但是1993年后却超过5年的时间阻碍了死刑的判决,于是减少了死刑的执行率。虽然法院继续判决死刑,但已经超过十年以上没有执行过。
  • The researchers note that from 1955 to 1980, homicide rates were relatively stable in Trinidad and Tobago, ranging from 4.44 per 100,000 (1955) to 4.34 (1980) during this period. However, during this same stretch, executions ranged from a high of 16 in 1969 to zero between 1980 and 1993.
  • 研究人员表示,从1955年至1980年,谋杀率在特立尼达和多巴哥相对比较平稳,在这个阶段,从100000起里每4.44起(1955)到4.34(1980)。但是,在相同的这段延续的时间,处决却从1969年一个16的高点到1980年和1993年间的0.
  • By contrast, when executions rose to 11 in 1999, the murder rate rose in nearly every subsequent year until 2007, the last year calculated. In 2007, 391 homicides were recorded in Trinidad and Tobago—a country with a population of just 1,328,412—resulting in a rate of 29.4 per 100,000 population. This compares to a U.S. homicide rate in the same year of 5.6 per 100,000 population.
  • 相对的,当执行在1999年攀升到11的时候,去年计算的结果是,直到2007年谋杀率差不多每年都增长。在2007年,391起谋杀在特立尼达和多巴哥被记录——一个只有1328412人口的国家——造成一个每100000就有5.6人的比率。
  • The researchers acknowledged the role geography could play into the findings.
  • 研究人员们承认地理是可以影响发现结果的影响因素。
  • “Generalizations from Trinidad and Tobago to other settings must obviously be made cautiously,” they write. “Every country has distinctive elements of culture, social structure, and social organization that may influence the way its population responds to criminal justice sanctions, including the death penalty.”
  • “从特立尼达和多巴哥来归纳总结其他国家的时候必须要谨慎小心,”他们写道。“每个国家都有更不相同的元素,像是文化,社会结构,和社交组织,这些都会影响人们对于刑事司法制裁方式的回应,包括死刑。”
  • Murders in the republic have risen dramatically since 2000—when executions ceased, even though death-penalty sentences have continued—but this change says little about the impact of capital punishment as a deterrent to murder, Greenberg says.
  • 自从2000年谋杀在共和国飞速增多——当执行被停止,尽管死刑的判决还在继续——但是这样的改变对于极刑可以作为谋杀的威慑作用的影响的证据来说太微不足道了,格林伯格说。
  • “We can reject the argument that the cessation of executions brought about a big increase in murder in the last decade—in earlier years, big swings in the execution rate had no visible effect and the 11 executions in 1999 brought about no detectable drop in homicides.”
  • “我们可以拒绝有关于停止死刑执行在上一个十年很高的提高看谋杀率这样的争论——在早些的几年,死刑执行率的大波动没有可见的影响,并且在1999年的11起死刑的执行,并没有带来谋杀的可检测到的大幅度减少。”
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