• Minimalist posters explain complex philosophical concepts with basic shapes

  • ミニマリストのポスターで複雑な哲学の概念を最低限の形で説明します

  • When it comes to explaining philosophy, sometimes less is more — and we think this arresting collection of minimalist posters encompasses that idea perfectly.
  • 哲学を説明する際、過ぎたるは猶及ばざるが如し、ということがままあります。この一際目を引くミニマリストによるポスターのコレクションはその考えを完璧に表していると思います。
  • The illustrations you see featured below are from a a series entitled "Philographics," and were created by London-based graphic designer Genís Carreras. Using basic colors, simple geometric design, and concise definitions, Carreras manages to cram impressive amounts of information — on philosophical doctrines as diverse as hedonism, determinism, and existentialism — into a surprisingly simple and accessible package.
  • 下のイラストたちは”フィログラフィックス”というタイトルのシリーズから来ています。このシリーズはロンドンを中心に活躍するグラフィックデザイナージェニス・カレラスによって創られました。基本的な色とシンプルな幾何学模様のデザインと簡潔な定義で、カレラスは快楽主義、決定論、実存主義などの多様な哲学の理論について見事な量の情報を、驚くほどシンプルで理解しやすいコレクションにまとめています。
  • We've included a sample of the collection below, but you'll find the series in its entirety, along with plenty more examples of Carreras' work, over on his website. The posters are also available for purchase via society6.
  • 下にコレクションからの例がありますが、シリーズの全部とカレラスの他の作品は
    彼のウェブサイトで見ることができます。ポスターはsociety6から買い求められます。
  • All descriptions have been transcribed from their respective posters
  • すべての説明はそれぞれのポスターから写したものです。
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  • Existentialism.
  • 実存主義
  • Individual is solely responsible for giving his or her own life meaning and for living that life passionately and sincerely, dealing with his or her conditions, emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts.
  • 個人は自分の人生に意味を持たせ、情熱を持って誠実に生き、自分の健康状態、感情、行動、責任、思考にだけに責任を持つ。
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  • Idealism.
  • 理想主義
  • Experience is ultimately based on mental activity. It is contrasted with realism, in which the external world is said to have an apparent absolute existence. The only things which can be directly known for certain are just ideas.
  • 経験は最終的に精神活動に基づいている。外部の世界が明白で完全な存在であると主張する現実主義と対照する。直接実在しているとわかることは思想だけである。
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  • Realism.
  • 現実主義
  • Reality exists independently of observers. In ethics, moral realism takes the view that there are objective moral values. Representative realism claims that humans cannot perceive the external world directly.
  • 現実は観察者とは関係なく存在する。論理学での道徳的実念論は物体に道徳的価値を見出すものである。象徴的現実主義は、人間は外の世界を知覚できないと主張している。
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  • Empiricism.
  • 経験主義
  • Knowledge arises from evidence gathered via sense experience. Empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or tradition.
  • 知識は認識の経験に基づいている。経験主義は経験と証拠の役割、特に思想の組み立てでは、内側のアイデアや伝統よりも知覚を強調する。
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  • Deism.
  • 理神論
  • Reason and observation of the natural world, without the need for organised religion, can determine that a supreme being created the universe. This deity does not intervene in human affairs or suspend the natural laws of the universe.
  • 組織化された宗教なしに、自然世界の理論と観察によって至高の存在によって創られたと判断することができる。造物主は人間の出来事の干渉したり宇宙の自然の法律を曲げることはない。
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  • Humanism.
  • 人本主義
  • Human being can lead happy and functional lives, and are capable of being ethical and moral, without religion or dogma. Life stance emphasises the unique responsibility facing humanity and the ethical consequences of human decisions.
  • 宗教や教義なしに、人は幸福で機能的な人生を送ることができ、倫理的で道徳的であることができる。人生については、人類が特有の責任に直面することと人類の決定に伴う倫理的な因果を強調している。
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  • Dualism.
  • Mind and matter are fundamentally distinct kinds of substances. Human beings have both of them, mind or soul and body. Moral dualism is the belief of the greater complement or conflict between the good and the evil.
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  • Hedonism.
  • Pleasure is the only intrinsic good. Actions can be evaluated in terms of how much pleasure they produce. In very simple terms, a hedonist strives to maximize the pleasure and minimize the pain.
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  • Absolutism.
  • An absolute truth is always correct under any condition. An entity's ability to discern these things is irrelevant to that state of truth. Universal facts can be discovered. It is opposed to relativism, which claims that there is not an unique truth.
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  • Relativisim.
  • Points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. Principles and ethics are regarded as aplicable in only limited context.
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  • Free will.
  • Agents have the ability to make choices. Individuals can be held morally accountable for their actions. An omnipotent divinity does not assert its power over the will and choices of individuals.
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  • Determinism.
  • Events within a given paradigm are bound by causality in such a way that any state of an object or event is determined by prior states. Every type of event, including human cognition (behaviour, decision, and action), is causally determined by previous events.
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  • Nihilism.
  • Life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. Morality does not inherently exist and any established moral values are abstractly contrived. Knowledge is not possible and some aspects of reality do not exist as such.
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